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FTP-server搭建、各种报错解决方案、添加ftp虚拟用户

作者:david00521  发布日期:2013-05-29 21:22:05

服务器:

192.168.100.23

32redhat5.7系统;

配置:

yum本地源配置:

[root@kvm-scm yum.repos.d]# pwd

/etc/yum.repos.d

[root@kvm-scm yum.repos.d]# cat rhel-source.repo

[rhel-source]

name=Red Hat Enterprise Linux $releasever - $basearch - Source

#baseurl=ftp://ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/linux/enterprise/$releasever/en/os/SRPMS/

#baseurl=ftp://ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/linux/enterprise/$releasever/en/os/SRPMS/

baseurl=file:///mnt/rhel62/Server

enabled=1

gpgcheck=0

gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release

[rhel-source-beta]

name=Red Hat Enterprise Linux $releasever Beta - $basearch - Source

baseurl=ftp://ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/linux/beta/$releasever/en/os/SRPMS/

enabled=0

gpgcheck=1

gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-beta,file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release

系统环境、安装包

centOS 5.4

db4

vsftpd

需要RPM

db4-tcl-4.3.29-10.el5_5.2

db4-4.3.29-10.el5_5.2

db4-java-4.3.29-10.el5_5.2

db4-utils-4.3.29-10.el5_5.2

db4-devel-4.3.29-10.el5_5.2

vsftpd-2.0.5-16.el5_5.1

2、安装vsftp

yum install vsftpd*

yum install db4-*

添加虚拟用户口令

vim /etc/login.txt

yzlread

yzldsz!@#

yzlwrite

yzldsz#@!

yzlother

yzldsz***

生成虚拟用户口令认证文件

db_load -T -t hash -f /etc/login.txt /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_login.db

注意:每次新加用户,都要执行此条,生成数据库。

chmod 600 /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_login.db

编辑vsftpdPAM认证文件

vi /etc/pam.d/vsftpd

将里面的全部注释掉,添加下面的两行32

authrequired/lib/security/pam_userdb.so db=/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_login

accountrequired/lib/security/pam_userdb.so db=/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_login

注:

64位系统,动态库位置有变化:

/lib64/security/pam_userdb.so

authrequired/lib64/security/pam_userdb.so db=/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_login

accountrequired/lib64/security/pam_userdb.so db=/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_login

建立本地映射用户并设置宿主目录权限

useradd -d /home/ftpsite -s /sbin/nologin virtual

chmod 700 /home/ftpsite

配置vsftpd.conf

解析:

vi /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf

anonymous_enable=NO

local_enable=YES

listen=YES#设置VSFTP服务器启动方式为独立启动

#virtual_use_local_privs=YES#将此配置注释掉,否则虚拟用户的权限无法细分

user_config_dir=/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_user_conf#创建此目录,此目录为用户的权限文件配置目录

chroot_local_user=YES#设置目录不可以更改主目录

listen_port=21

pasv_enable=YES

pasv_max_port=30000

pasv_min_port=30999

guest_enable=YES#开启虚拟用户

guest_username=virtual#FTP虚拟用户对于的系统用户

pam_service_name=vsftpd#PAM认证文件

实例配置:

cd /etc/vsftpd

cp vsftpd.conf vsftpd.conf.orig

echo>vsftpd.conf

vim /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf

# Example config file /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf

#

# The default compiled in settings are fairly paranoid. This sample file

# loosens things up a bit, to make the ftp daemon more usable.

# Please see vsftpd.conf.5 for all compiled in defaults.

#

# READ THIS: This example file is NOT an exhaustive list of vsftpd options.

# Please read the vsftpd.conf.5 manual page to get a full idea of vsftpd's

# capabilities.

#

# Allow anonymous FTP? (Beware - allowed by default if you comment this out).

anonymous_enable=NO

#anonymous_enable=YES

#

# Uncomment this to allow local users to log in.

local_enable=YES

#

# Uncomment this to enable any form of FTP write command.

write_enable=NO

#

# Default umask for local users is 077. You may wish to change this to 022,

# if your users expect that (022 is used by most other ftpd's)

local_umask=022

#

# Uncomment this to allow the anonymous FTP user to upload files. This only

# has an effect if the above global write enable is activated. Also, you will

# obviously need to create a directory writable by the FTP user.

anon_upload_enable=NO

#

# Uncomment this if you want the anonymous FTP user to be able to create

# new directories.

anon_mkdir_write_enable=NO

anon_other_write_enable=NO

anon_world_readable_only=NO

#

# Activate directory messages - messages given to remote users when they

# go into a certain directory.

dirmessage_enable=YES

#

# The target log file can be vsftpd_log_file or xferlog_file.

# This depends on setting xferlog_std_format parameter

xferlog_enable=YES

#

# Make sure PORT transfer connections originate from port 20 (ftp-data).

connect_from_port_20=YES

#

# If you want, you can arrange for uploaded anonymous files to be owned by

# a different user. Note! Using "root" for uploaded files is not

# recommended!

#chown_uploads=YES

#chown_username=whoever

#

# The name of log file when xferlog_enable=YES and xferlog_std_format=YES

# WARNING - changing this filename affects /etc/logrotate.d/vsftpd.log

#xferlog_file=/var/log/xferlog

#

# Switches between logging into vsftpd_log_file and xferlog_file files.

# NO writes to vsftpd_log_file, YES to xferlog_file

xferlog_std_format=YES

#

# You may change the default value for timing out an idle session.

#idle_session_timeout=600

#

# You may change the default value for timing out a data connection.

#data_connection_timeout=120

#

# It is recommended that you define on your system a unique user which the

# ftp server can use as a totally isolated and unprivileged user.

#nopriv_user=ftpsecure

#

# Enable this and the server will recognise asynchronous ABOR requests. Not

# recommended for security (the code is non-trivial). Not enabling it,

# however, may confuse older FTP clients.

#async_abor_enable=YES

#

# By default the server will pretend to allow ASCII mode but in fact ignore

# the request. Turn on the below options to have the server actually do ASCII

# mangling on files when in ASCII mode.

# Beware that on some FTP servers, ASCII support allows a denial of service

# attack (DoS) via the command "SIZE /big/file" in ASCII mode. vsftpd

# predicted this attack and has always been safe, reporting the size of the

# raw file.

# ASCII mangling is a horrible feature of the protocol.

#ascii_upload_enable=YES

#ascii_download_enable=YES

#

# You may fully customise the login banner string:

#ftpd_banner=Welcome to blah FTP service.

#

# You may specify a file of disallowed anonymous e-mail addresses. Apparently

# useful for combatting certain DoS attacks.

#deny_email_enable=YES

# (default follows)

#banned_email_file=/etc/vsftpd/banned_emails

#

# You may specify an explicit list of local users to chroot() to their home

# directory. If chroot_local_user is YES, then this list becomes a list of

# users to NOT chroot().

chroot_local_user=YES

#chroot_list_enable=YES

#chroot_list_enable=YES

# (default follows)

#chroot_list_file=/etc/vsftpd/chroot_list

#

# You may activate the "-R" option to the builtin ls. This is disabled by

# default to avoid remote users being able to cause excessive I/O on large

# sites. However, some broken FTP clients such as "ncftp" and "mirror" assume

# the presence of the "-R" option, so there is a strong case for enabling it.

#ls_recurse_enable=YES

#

# When "listen" directive is enabled, vsftpd runs in standalone mode and

# listens on IPv4 sockets. This directive cannot be used in conjunction

# with the listen_ipv6 directive.

listen=YES

#

# This directive enables listening on IPv6 sockets. To listen on IPv4 and IPv6

# sockets, you must run two copies of vsftpd whith two configuration files.

# Make sure, that one of the listen options is commented !!

#listen_ipv6=YES

listen_port=21

pasv_enable=YES

pasv_max_port=30000

pasv_min_port=30999

guest_enable=YES

guest_username=virtual

pam_service_name=vsftpd

#userlist_enable=YES

tcp_wrappers=YES

user_config_dir=/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_user_conf

dual_log_enable=YES

vsftpd_log_file=/var/log/vsftpd.log

用户配置权限

mkdir /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_user_conf

vi /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_user_conf/yzlread

local_root=/home/ftpsite/

write_enable=YES

anon_world_readable_only=NO

vi /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_user_conf/yzlwrite

local_root=/home/ftpsite/如果/home/ftpsite/zhanxun

write_enable=YES

anon_world_readable_only=NO

anon_upload_enable=YES

anon_mkdir_write_enable=YES

anon_other_write_enable=YES

vi /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_user_conf/yzlother

local_root=/home/ftpsite/

write_enable=YES

anon_world_readable_only=NO

anon_upload_enable=YES

启动服务:

service vsftpd restart

访问:

ftp://192.168.0.222

问题分析

修改配置时报启动错误:

[root@kvm vsftpd]# service vsftpd restart

Shutting down vsftpd:[OK]

Starting vsftpd for vsftpd: 500 OOPS: bad bool value in config file for: guest_enable

[FAILED]

登录报认证失败:

但登录的密码实际并没有错误。

Connected to localhost (127.0.0.1).

220 (vsFTPd 2.2.2)

Name (localhost:root): yzlread

331 Please specify the password.

Password:

530 Login incorrect.

Login failed.

LOG日志:

[root@kvm log]# tail -f vsftpd.log

Wed Jul 18 12:06:33 2012 [pid 11846] [yzlwrite] FAIL LOGIN: Client "127.0.0.1"

Wed Jul 18 12:07:10 2012 [pid 12033] CONNECT: Client "127.0.0.1"

Wed Jul 18 12:07:41 2012 [pid 12199] CONNECT: Client "127.0.0.1"

Wed Jul 18 12:08:14 2012 [pid 12198] [yzlread] FAIL LOGIN: Client "127.0.0.1"

检查各配置项,没有发现错误,完全按照文档配置。

32机器上正常,在64位机器上不正常。

最后检查认证的配置:

[root@kvm log]# vim/etc/pam.d/vsftpd

#%PAM-1.0

#sessionoptionalpam_keyinit.soforce revoke

#authrequiredpam_listfile.so item=user sense=deny file=/etc/vsftpd/ftpusers onerr=succeed

#authrequiredpam_shells.so

#authincludepassword-auth

#accountincludepassword-auth

#sessionrequiredpam_loginuid.so

#sessionincludepassword-auth

authrequired/lib/security/pam_userdb.so db=/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_login

accountrequired/lib/security/pam_userdb.so db=/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_login

分析:

在想,难道是认证的包不存在?

[root@kvm log]# ll/lib/security/pam_userdb.so

ls: cannot access /lib/security/pam_userdb.so: No such file or directory

[root@kvm log]#

果然不存在。

[root@kvm log]# find /lib64 -name pam_userdb.so

/lib64/security/pam_userdb.so

原来,64位的库位置变了!

教训:

32位程序安装到64位,要考虑动态库的位置变化等因素。

启动时报错:

/etc/init.d/vsftpd start|restart


500 OOPS: cannot change directory:

linux打开ftp遇到的问题 500 OOPS: cannot change directory:

google好多都是执行这个就OK setsebool ftpd_disable_trans 1 service vsftpd restart

但是执行的时候遇到这个问题 Could not change active booleans: Invalid boolean

搜了好久终于解决

setsebool -P ftp_home_dir=1

教训:

安装linux时最好先关闭selinux.

登录报file size错误:

[root@yun_zl ~]# ftp localhost

Trying ::1...

ftp: connect to address ::1Connection refused

Trying 127.0.0.1...

Connected to localhost (127.0.0.1).

220 (vsFTPd 2.2.2)

Name (localhost:root): yzlwrite

331 Please specify the password.

Password:

/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_login.db: file size not a multiple of the pagesize

Login failed.

rpm -qa|grep db4

db4-4.7.25-16.el6.i686

db4-devel-4.7.25-16.el6.x86_64

db4-devel-4.7.25-16.el6.i686

db4-cxx-4.7.25-16.el6.x86_64

db4-cxx-4.7.25-16.el6.i686

db4-4.7.25-16.el6.x86_64

db4-utils-4.7.25-16.el6.x86_64

删除I686的包:

rpm -e db4-devel-4.7.25-16.el6.i686

yum install db4-tcl-*

Error Downloading Packages:

db4-tcl-4.7.25-16.el6.x86_64: failure: Packages/db4-tcl-4.7.25-16.el6.x86_64.rpm from base: [Errno 256] No more mirrors to try.

[root@yun_zl db4]# pwd

/opt/soft/db4

wget http://mirror.centos.org/centos/6/os/x86_64/Packages/db4-tcl-4.7.25-17.el6.x86_64.rpm

db4-java-4.7.25-16.el6.x86_64.rpm

比较0.222环境:

db4-4.7.25-16.el6.x86_64

db4-devel-4.7.25-16.el6.x86_64

db4-utils-4.7.25-16.el6.x86_64

db4-cxx-4.7.25-16.el6.x86_64

这几个包都有,不用再安装java,tcl等开发包。

再执行:

[root@yun_zl Packages]# db_load -T -t hash -f /etc/login.txt /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_login.db

db_load: /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_login.db: file size not a multiple of the pagesize

[root@yun_zl Packages]# file /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_login.db

/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_login.db: Berkeley DB (Hash, version 9, native byte-order)

db_load -T -t hash -f /etc/login.txt /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_login1.db

db_load -T -t hash -f /etc/login.txt /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_login.db

db_load: /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_login.db: file size not a multiple of the pagesize

db_load: DB->open: /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_login.db: Invalid argument

删除之并重建:

[root@yun_zl Packages]# rm -rf /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_login.db

[root@yun_zl Packages]# db_load -T -t hash -f /etc/login.txt /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_login.db

OK

没有报错了。

原因:

使用yum installdb4-*

32位的包也装上了,弄错了数据了。

 

FTP添加用户

vim /etc/login.txt

第一步:增加用户

yzlread

yzldsz!@#

yzlwrite

yzldsz#@!

yzlother

yzldsz***

testwrite给测试部开的

yzl#@!test

第二部:生成虚拟用户口令认证文件

注意:每次新加用户,都要执行此条,生成数据库。

db_load -T -t hash -f /etc/login.txt /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_login.db

 

第三部:新建目录

 

/home/ftpsite/zhanxun测试部跟展讯使用

 

必须执行

chown virtual.virtual -R zhanxun

 

第四步:配置权限

 

# cd /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd_user_conf

#vim testwrite用户名

 

local_root=/home/ftpsite/zhanxun

write_enable=YES

anon_world_readable_only=NO

anon_upload_enable=YES

anon_mkdir_write_enable=YES

anon_other_write_enable=YES

 

第五步:重启服务

 

service vsftpd restart


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