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Web服务之LNMMP架构及动静分离实现

作者:hoo_5  发布日期:2014-05-20 09:11:26

一、LNMMP

LNMMP环境是Linux + Nginx + Memcached + MySQL + PhP,即LNMP + memcached。

Memcached 是一个高性能的分布式内存对象缓存系统,用于动态Web应用以减轻数据库负载。它通过在内存中缓存数据和对象来减少读取数据库的次数,从而提供动态、数据库驱动网站的速度。Memcached基于一个存储键/值对的hashmap。其守护进程(daemon )是用C写的,但是客户端可以用任何语言来编写,并通过memcached协议与守护进程通信。

 

二、工程拓扑

wKiom1N4iVbBfTQjAAC0cRxVX3w956.jpg

 

三、安装nginx服务器

1)部署开发环境
# yum -y install "Development tools" "Server Platform Development"
2)解决依赖 pcre-devel  openssl-devel
# yum -y install pcre-devel openssl-devel
3) 设置用户
# groupadd -r nginx
# useradd -r -g nginx nginx
4)编译安装nginx-1.4.7
# tar xf nginx-1.4.7.tar.gz
# cd nginx-1.4.7
# ./configure --prefix=/usr --sbin-path=/usr/sbin/nginx \
--conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --error-log-path=\ /var/log/nginx/error.log --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log \
--pid-path=/var/run/nginx/nginx.pid --lock-path=/var/lock/nginx.lock \--user=nginx --group=nginx --with-http_ssl_module \
--with-http_flv_module --with-http_stub_status_module \
--with-http_gzip_static_module --http-client-body-temp-path=\ /var/tmp/nginx/client/ --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/tmp/nginx/proxy/ \ --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/tmp/nginx/fcgi/ \
--http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/tmp/nginx/uwsgi --http-scgi-temp-path=\
/var/tmp/nginx/scgi --with-pcre
# make && make install
5)检测配置文件语法
# /usr/sbin/nginx -t
6) 提供启动脚本
# vim  /etc/rc.d/init.d/nginx
   内容如下
# nginx - this script starts and stops the nginx daemon
#
# chkconfig:   - 85 15
# description:  Nginx is an HTTP(S) server, HTTP(S) reverse \
#               proxy and IMAP/POP3 proxy server
# processname: nginx
# config:      /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
# config:      /etc/sysconfig/nginx
# pidfile:     /var/run/nginx.pid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
# Source function library.
. /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
# Source networking configuration.
. /etc/sysconfig/network
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
# Check that networking is up.
[ "$NETWORKING" = "no" ] && exit 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
nginx="/usr/sbin/nginx"
prog=$(basename $nginx)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
NGINX_CONF_FILE="/etc/nginx/nginx.conf"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
[ -f /etc/sysconfig/nginx ] && . /etc/sysconfig/nginx
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
lockfile=/var/lock/subsys/nginx
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
make_dirs() {
   # make required directories
   user=`nginx -V 2>&1 | grep "configure arguments:" | sed 's/[^*]*--user=\([^ ]*\).*/\1/g' -`
   options=`$nginx -V 2>&1 | grep 'configure arguments:'`
   for opt in $options; do
       if [ `echo $opt | grep '.*-temp-path'` ]; then
           value=`echo $opt | cut -d "=" -f 2`
           if [ ! -d "$value" ]; then
               # echo "creating" $value
               mkdir -p $value && chown -R $user $value
           fi
       fi
   done
}
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
start() {
    [ -x $nginx ] || exit 5
    [ -f $NGINX_CONF_FILE ] || exit 6
    make_dirs
    echo -n $"Starting $prog: "
    daemon $nginx -c $NGINX_CONF_FILE
    retval=$?
    echo
    [ $retval -eq 0 ] && touch $lockfile
    return $retval
}
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
stop() {
    echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "
    killproc $prog -QUIT
    retval=$?
    echo
    [ $retval -eq 0 ] && rm -f $lockfile
    return $retval
}
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
restart() {
    configtest || return $?
    stop
    sleep 1
    start
}
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
reload() {
    configtest || return $?
    echo -n $"Reloading $prog: "
    killproc $nginx -HUP
    RETVAL=$?
    echo
}
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
force_reload() {
    restart
}
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
configtest() {
  $nginx -t -c $NGINX_CONF_FILE
}
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
rh_status() {
    status $prog
}
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
rh_status_q() {
    rh_status >/dev/null 2>&1
}
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
case "$1" in
    start)
        rh_status_q && exit 0
        $1
        ;;
    stop)
        rh_status_q || exit 0
        $1
        ;;
    restart|configtest)
        $1
        ;;
    reload)
        rh_status_q || exit 7
        $1
        ;;
    force-reload)
        force_reload
        ;;
    status)
        rh_status
        ;;
    condrestart|try-restart)
        rh_status_q || exit 0
            ;;
    *)
        echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|status|restart|condrestart|try-restart|reload|force-reload|configtest}"
        exit 2
esac
7)为服务脚本赋予执行权限
# chmod +x /etc/rc.d/init.d/nginx
8)添加到系统服务并开机启动
# chkconfig --add nginx
# chkconfig nginx on
# chkconfig --list nigx
9) 设置nginx配置文件的语法高亮
# mkdir ./vim/syntax -pv
# cd  .vim/syntax
# wget http://www.vim.org/scripts/download_script.php?src_id=19394
# cd .vim
# vim filetype.vim 内容如下
 au BufRead,BufNewFile /etc/nginx/*,/usr/local/nginx/conf/* if &ft == '' | setfiletype nginx | endif
10)启动服务
# service nginx start
# ss -tnalp | grep nginx

 

四、安装MySQL服务器

1.安装

12 # tar xf mysql-5.5.33-linux2.6-x86_64.tar.gz -C /usr/local# ln -sv /usr/local/mysql-5.5.33-linux2.6-x86_64 mysql 创建软连接,易于操作

2.为数据库创建数据目录

#mkdri -pv /mydata/data

3.新建用户以安全方式运行进程

 

12345 #groupadd -r mysql //创建系统组mysql#useradd -r -s /sbin/nologin -g mysql mysql -M -D /mydata/data mysql//创建系统用户mysql#chown -R mysql:mysql /mydata/data//设置目录属主属组

4.初始化mysql

12345 # cd /usr/local/mysql# scripts/mysql_install_db --datadir=/mydata/data --user=mysql//初始化数据库# chown -R root .//设置当前目录所有文件属主为root

5.提供脚本

 

12345678 #cd /usr/local/mysql#cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld//设置脚本mysqld#chmod +x /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld//给脚本执行权限# chkconfig --add mysqld//添加开机启动# chkconfig mysqld on

6.提供配文件

1234567 #cd /usr/local/mysql#cp support-files/my-large.cnf /etc/my.cnf#vim /etc/my.cnfthread_concurrency = 2//修改,并发线程数,bithread_concurrency的值为CPU个数乘以2datadir = /mydata/data#添加,mysql数据文件的存放路径:

7.其他配置

12345678910 # vim /etc/profile.d/mysqld.shexportPATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin:$PATH# source /etc/profile.d/mysqld.sh#vim /etc/man.configMANPATH /usr/local/mysql/man//添加此行# ln -sv /usr/local/mysql/include /usr/include/mysql//输出mysql的头文件至系统头文件路径/usr/include# echo '/usr/local/mysql/lib' > /etc/ld.so.conf.d/mysql.conf//输出mysql的库文件给系统库#ldconfig //重载系统库:

8.启动服务

# service mysqld start
# ss  -tnl | grep 3306

9.用户初始化

 

12345678 #mysqlmysql> use mysqlmysql> selecthost,user,password from user;mysql> DELETE FROM user WHERE user = ''; //删除空用户mysql> DELETE FROM user WHERE user = '::1'; //删除ipv6用户mysql> UPDATE user SET password = PASSWORD('Hoolee') WHERE password = '';//为root用户设置密码mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

 

 

 

 

 

五、安装php服务器

1.解决开发环境和依赖关系

123 # yum -y install bzip2-devel# yum -y install libmcrypt-devel# yum -y groupinstall "Desktop Platform Development"

2.安装php

# tar xf php-5.4.26.tar.bz2
# cd /usr/src/php-5.4.26/
# ./configure--prefix=/usr/local/php --with-openssl
--with-mysql=mysqlnd --with-mysqli=mysqlnd --with-pdo-mysql=mysqlnd
--enable-mbstring --with-freetype-dir --with-jpeg-dir
--with-png-dir --with-zlib--with-libxml-dir=/usr --enable-xml
--enable-sockets --with-apxs2=/usr/local/apache2/bin/apxs
--with-mcrypt  --with-config-file-path=/etc --with-config-file-scan-dir=/etc/php.d
--with-bz2  --enable-maintainer-zts
# make  && make install

3.提供配置文件

1 # cp php.ini-production /etc/php.ini

4.为php-fpm提供脚本,并将其添加到服务列表

# cp sapi/fpm/init.d.php-fpm /etc/rc.d/init.d/php-fpm
# chmod +x /etc/rc.d/init.d/php-fpm
# chkconfig --add php-fpm
# chkconfig php-fpm on

5.为php-fpm提供配置文件

# cp /usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.conf.default /usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.conf

6.编辑php-fpm配置文件

# vim /usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
    pm.max_children = 150
    pm.start_servers = 8
    pm.min_spare_servers = 5
    pm.max_spare_servers = 10
    pid = /usr/local/php/var/run/php-fpm.pid
    listen = 172.16.1.11:9000

7.启动php-fpm

# service php-fpm start
# ps -aux | grep php-fpm

 

六、安装php加速器xcache

1.安装xcache

12345678910 # tar xf xcache-3.0.3.tar.gz# cd xcache-3.0.3# /usr/local/php/bin/phpize//phpize是用来安装php扩展模块的,通过phpize可以建立php的外挂模块,若你想在原来编译好的php中加入memcached或者ImageMagick等扩展模块,就需要使用phpize# # ./configure --enable=xcache --with-php-config=/usr/local/php/bin/php-config# make && make install//显示xcache模块路径:/usr/local/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-zts-20100525/

2.编辑配置文件,整合php + xcache

1234 # vim xcache.ini//添加模块路径extension = /usr/local/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-zts-20100525/xcache.so# cp xcache.ini /etc/php.d/

3.重启php-fpm

 

# service php-fpm restart

 

七、配置nginx

1.编辑/etc/nginx/nginx.conf,实现动静分离

 

worker_processes  2; #worker进程的个数
error_log  /var/log/nginx/error.log  notice;    #错误日志路径及级别
events {
    worker_connections  1024;    #每个worker能够并发响应的最大请求数
}
http {
    include       mime.types;    #支持多媒体类型
    default_type  application/octet-stream;
    sendfile        on;    #由内核直接转发
    #keepalive_timeout  0;
    keepalive_timeout  5;    #持久连接5s
    gzip  on;    #开启压缩功能
    server {
        listen       80;
        server_name  www.hoo.com;
        add_header X-via $server_addr;    #让客户端能够看到代理服务器的IP
        location / {
            root   html;
            index  index.php index.html index.htm;
        }
        location ~* \.(jpg|jpeg|png|gif|js|css)$ {  #匹配静态内容
            root   html;    #默认目录在/usr/local/nginx/html
        }
        location ~ \.php$ {  #匹配动态php文件
            root                html;
            fastcgi_pass        172.16.7.11:9000;    #代理到的服务器
            fastcgi_index       index.php;
            fastcgi_param       SCRIPT_FILENAME scripts$fastcgi_script_name;
            include             fastcgi_params;
        }
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
    }
}

 

2.编辑/etc/nginx/fastcgi_params

fastcgi_param  GATEWAY_INTERFACE  CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_SOFTWARE    nginx;
fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_TYPE       $content_type;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_LENGTH     $content_length;
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME    $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_URI        $request_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_URI       $document_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_ROOT      $document_root;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_ADDR        $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_PORT        $remote_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_ADDR        $server_addr;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;

3.重载nginx

# service nginx reload

 

八、安装Memcached服务器

1.memcached特性

Memcached是一款开发工具,它既不是一个代码加速器,也不是数据库中间件。其设计哲学思想主要反映在如下方面:

(1)简单key/value存储:服务器不关心数据本身的意义及结构,只要是可序列化数据即可。存储项由“键、过期时间、可选的标志及数据”四个部分组成;

(2)功能的实现一半依赖于客户端,一半基于服务器端:客户负责发送存储项至服务器端、从服务端获取数据以及无法连接至服务器时采用相应的动作;服务端负责接收、存储数据,并负责数据项的超时过期;

(3)各服务器间彼此无视:不在服务器间进行数据同步;

(4)O(1)的执行效率

(5)清理超期数据:默认情况下,Memcached是一个LRU缓存,同时,它按事先预订的时长清理超期数据;但事实上,memcached不会删除任何已缓存数据,只是在其过期之后不再为客户所见;而且,memcached也不会真正按期限清理缓存,而仅是当get命令到达时检查其时长;

 

2.安装memcached

a).部署开发环境,解决依赖关系

# yum groupinstall "Development Tools" "Server Platform Deveopment" -y
# yum install -y libevent-devel

b).编译安装memcached

# tar xf memcached-1.4.15.tar.gz
# cd memcached-1.4.15
# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/memcached --with-libevent=/usr/local/libevent
# make && make install

c).为memcached提供启动脚本

#!/bin/bash
#
# Init file for memcached
#
# chkconfig: - 86 14
# description: Distributed memory caching daemon
#
# processname: memcached
# config: /etc/sysconfig/memcached
. /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions
## Default variables
PORT="11211"
USER="nobody"
MAXCONN="1024"
CACHESIZE="64"
OPTIONS=""
RETVAL=0
prog="/usr/local/memcached/bin/memcached"
desc="Distributed memory caching"
lockfile="/var/lock/subsys/memcached"
start() {
        echo -n $"Starting $desc (memcached): "
        daemon $prog -d -p $PORT -u $USER -c $MAXCONN -m $CACHESIZE -o "$OPTIONS"
        RETVAL=$?
        [ $RETVAL -eq 0 ] && success && touch $lockfile || failure
        echo
        return $RETVAL
}
stop() {
        echo -n $"Shutting down $desc (memcached): "
        killproc $prog
        RETVAL=$?
        [ $RETVAL -eq 0 ] && success && rm -f $lockfile || failure
        echo
        return $RETVAL
}
restart() {
        stop
        start
}
reload() {
        echo -n $"Reloading $desc ($prog): "
        killproc $prog -HUP
        RETVAL=$?
        [ $RETVAL -eq 0 ] && success || failure
        echo
        return $RETVAL
}
case "$1" in
  start)
        start
        ;;
  stop)
        stop
        ;;
  restart)
        restart
        ;;
  condrestart)
        [ -e $lockfile ] && restart
        RETVAL=$?
        ;;
  reload)
        reload
        ;;
  status)
        status $prog
        RETVAL=$?
        ;;
   *)
        echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|restart|condrestart|status}"
        RETVAL=1
esac
exit $RETVAL

d).添加memcached至服务列表

# chmod +x /etc/init.d/memcached
# chkconfig --add memcached
# service memcached start

e).检查是否运行

# ss -tnlp | grep 11211

 

九、安装php的memcached扩展

1.安装memcached扩展

# tar xf memcache-2.2.7.tgz
# cd memcache-2.2.7
# /usr/local/php/bin/phpize
# ./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/php/bin/php-config --enable-memcache
# make && make install

2.编辑配置文件,整合php + memcached

# vim xcache.ini
//添加模块路径
extension = /usr/local/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-zts-20100525/memcache.so

 

 

3.重启php-fpm

# service php-fpm restart

 

4.对memcached功能进行测试,在网站目录中建立测试页面test.php

//php服务器
# vim test.php
<?php
$mem = new Memcache;
$mem->connect("172.16.1.13", 11211)  or die("Could not connect");
$version = $mem->getVersion();
echo "Server's version: ".$version."<br/>\n";
$mem->set('hellokey', 'Hello World', 0, 600) or die("Failed to save data at the memcached server");
echo "Store data in the cache (data will expire in 600 seconds)<br/>\n";
$get_result = $mem->get('hellokey');
echo "$get_result is from memcached server.";
?>
~

测试访问即可。

5.安装wordpress测试访问即可

 

十、安装memadmin-master查看memcached状态信息

1.解压即可使用

//解压至php服务器/usr/local/nginx/html/
# unzip memadmin-master.zip

2.测试访问

Tag标签: LNMMP   动静分离  
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