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NFS网络共享服务部署

作者:兔子_先生  来源:IT165收集  发布日期:2016-02-26 22:01:44

10.3 NFS服务端部署环境准备

10.3.1 NFS服务部署服务器准备

服务器系统 角色 IP
Centos6.7 x86_64 NFS服务器端(NFS-server) 192.168.1.14
Centos6.7 x86_64 NFS客户端(Web-lamp01) 192.168.1.15
Centos6.7 x86_64 NFS客户端(Web-lnmp02) 192.168.1.16

10.3.2 NFS服务部署架构图

10.3.3 NFS服务器端操作系统及内核版本

1 [root@NFS-server ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release 
2 CentOS release 6.7 (Final)
3 [root@NFS-server ~]# username -r
4 [root@NFS-server ~]# uname -r
5 2.6.32-573.el6.x86_64
6 [root@NFS-server ~]# uname -m
7 x86_64

10.4 NFS服务安装前准备

10.4.1 查询nfs-utils和rpcbind包是否安装

1 [root@NFS-server ~]# rpm -qa nfs-utils rpcbind   ##查询结果为两个安装包都未安装
2 [root@NFS-server ~]#

知识扩展:

安装NFS软件安装的3种方法:

检查:rpm -qa nfs-utils rpcbind ←最佳

1)方法1:yum -y install nfs-utils rpcbind

2)方法2:通过系统光盘里的rpm包安装,命令如:rpm -ivh nfs-utils-1.2.3-36.e16.x86_64.rpm

3)方法3:LANG=en

yum grouplist|grep -i nfs

yum groupinstall "NFS file server" -y

10.4.2使用方法1安装所需软件包

10.4.3检查安装包是否安装上

1 [root@NFS-server ~]# rpm -qa nfs-utils rpcbind
2 rpcbind-0.2.0-11.el6_7.x86_64
3 nfs-utils-1.2.3-64.el6.x86_64

10.4.4 接下来启动相应的服务

 1 [root@NFS-server ~]# /etc/init.d/rpcbind status  <==检查rpcbind服务状态
 2 rpcbind is stopped
 3 [root@NFS-server ~]# rpcinfo -p localhost  <==rpcbind服务未启动检查 rpcinfo信息报错
 4 rpcinfo: can't contact portmapper: RPC: Remote system error - Connection refused
 5 [root@NFS-server ~]# /etc/init.d/rpcbind start  <==启动rpcbind服务
 6 Starting rpcbind:                                          [  OK  ]
 7 [root@NFS-server ~]# /etc/init.d/rpcbind status
 8 rpcbind (pid  2083) is running...
 9 ?[root@NFS-server ~]# /etc/init.d/nfs status  <==查看nfs服务状态
10 rpc.svcgssd is stopped
11 rpc.mountd is stopped
12 nfsd is stopped
13 rpc.rquotad is stopped
14 [root@NFS-server ~]# /etc/init.d/nfs start  <==启动nfs服务
15 Starting NFS services:                                     [  OK  ]
16 Starting NFS quotas:                                       [  OK  ]
17 Starting NFS mountd:                                       [  OK  ]
18 Starting NFS daemon:                                       [  OK  ]
19 Starting RPC idmapd:                                       [  OK  ]

10.4.5 设置开机自启动

1 [root@NFS-server ~]# chkconfig --level 35  nfs on  <==设置nfs服务开机自启动
2 [root@NFS-server ~]# chkconfig --list nfs
3 nfs             0:off   1:off   2:off   3:on    4:off   5:on    6:off
4 [root@NFS-server ~]# chkconfig --level 35 rpcbind on
5 [root@NFS-server ~]# chkconfig --list rpcbind     <==<==设置rpcbind服务开机自启动
6 rpcbind         0:off   1:off   2:on    3:on    4:on    5:on    6:off

10.5 配置NFS服务端

10.5.1 NFS服务端配置文件路径

NFS服务配置文件路径为:/etc/exports,并且默认是为空。

1 [root@NFS-server ~]# ll /etc/exports
2 -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 0 Jan 12  2010 /etc/exports
3 [root@NFS-server ~]# cat /etc/exports
4 [root@NFS-server ~]# 

10.5.2 编辑NFS服务端配置文件

1 [root@NFS-server ~]# vim /etc/exports
2 /data 192.168.1.0/24(rw,sync,all_squash)  <==添加如下内容
1 [root@NFS-server ~]# vim /etc/exports
2 /data 192.168.1.0/24(rw,sync,all_squash)  <==添加如下内容
3 ?[root@NFS-server ~]# mkdir -p /data  <==创建共享目录/data
4 [root@NFS-server ~]# ls -ld /data
5 drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root 4096 Nov 26 15:19 /data  <==当前共享目录的属主属组分别为root
6 [root@NFS-server ~]# chown -R nfsnobody.nfsnobody /data  <==修改/data及子文件属主属组为nfsnobody
7 [root@NFS-server ~]# ls -ld /data                      
8 drwxr-xr-x. 3 nfsnobody nfsnobody 4096 Nov 26 15:19 /data

10.5.3 重新加载NFS服务(优雅重启)

1 [root@NFS-server ~]# /etc/init.d/nfs reload ===exportfs -r
2 [root@NFS-server ~]# cat /var/lib/nfs/etab                
3 /data   192.168.1.0/24(rw,sync,wdelay,hide,nocrossmnt,secure,root_squash,all_squash,no_subtree_check,secure_locks,acl,anonuid=65534,anongid=65534,sec=sys,rw,root_squash,all_squash)
4 [root@NFS-server ~]# showmount -e 192.168.1.14 <==挂载前首先检查有权限需要挂载的信息
5 Export list for 192.168.1.14:
6 /data 192.168.1.0/24 <---可以看到共享/data目录

10.5.4 检查或测试挂载

1 [root@NFS-server test]# mount -t nfs 192.168.1.14:/data /mnt  ##将/data共享目录挂载到/mnt目录
2 [root@NFS-server test]# df -h
3 Filesystem          Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
4 /dev/sda3           7.1G  1.5G  5.3G  22% /
5 tmpfs               279M     0  279M   0% /dev/shm
6 /dev/sda1           190M   36M  145M  20% /boot
7 192.168.1.14:/data  7.1G  1.5G  5.3G  22% /mnt

?注意:

大型企业工作场景统一按照运维规范将服务的启动写到/etc/rc.local文件里,而不用chkconfig管理。把/etc/rc.local文件作为本机的重要档案,所有服务的开机自启动都必须放入/etc/rc.local。这样规范的好处是,一旦有运维人员离职,或者业务迁移时都通过/etc/rc.local很容易查看服务器相关的服务,可以方便运维管理。并且把启动命令放入到/etc/rc.local文件中一定要加上启动服务的注释。

 1 [root@NFS-server test]# vim /etc/rc.local 
 2 #!/bin/sh
 3 #
 4 # This script will be executed *after* all the other init scripts.
 5 # You can put your own initialization stuff in here if you don't
 6 # want to do the full Sys V style init stuff.
 7 
 8 touch /var/lock/subsys/local
 9 #start up nfs services by zhurui at 20160226
10 /etc/init.d/rpcbind start <==开机自启rpcbind服务
11 /etc/init.d/nfs start  <==开机自启nfs服务

Web-lamp01客户端部署:

 1 1.安装软件
 2 [root@Web-lamp01 ~]# yum -y install nfs-utils rpcbind   
 3 Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, security
 4 Setting up Install Process
 5 Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 6  * base: mirrors.sina.cn
 7  * extras: mirrors.opencas.cn
 8  * updates: centos.ustc.edu.cn
 9 base                                             | 3.7 kB     00:00     
10 extras                                           | 3.4 kB     00:00     
11 extras/primary_db                                |  34 kB     00:00     
12 updates                                          | 3.4 kB     00:00 
13 2.启动rpcbind
14 [root@Web-lamp01 ~]# /etc/init.d/rpcbind start
15 Starting rpcbind:                                          [  OK  ]
16 [root@Web-lamp01 ~]# 
17 3.配置开机自启动
18 [root@Web-lamp01 ~]# chkconfig --level 35 rpcbind on
19 [root@Web-lamp01 ~]# chkconfig --list rpcbind
20 rpcbind         0:off   1:off   2:on    3:on    4:on    5:on    6:off
21 [root@Web-lamp01 ~]# 
22 4.测试服务端共享
23 [root@Web-lamp01 ~]# showmount -e 192.168.1.14
24 Export list for 192.168.1.14:
25 /data 192.168.1.0/24
26 5.挂载
27 [root@Web-lamp01 ~]# mount -t nfs 192.168.1.14:/data /mnt
28 [root@Web-lamp01 ~]# df -h
29 Filesystem          Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
30 /dev/sda3           7.1G  1.5G  5.3G  22% /
31 tmpfs               279M     0  279M   0% /dev/shm
32 /dev/sda1           190M   36M  145M  20% /boot
33 192.168.1.14:/data  7.1G  1.5G  5.3G  22% /mnt
34 6.测试读,写
35 服务器端:
36 [root@NFS-server test]# cd /data/
37 [root@NFS-server data]# ll
38 total 8
39 -rw-r--r--. 1 nfsnobody nfsnobody    0 Nov 28 12:20 fs.sf
40 drwxr-xr-x. 2 nfsnobody nfsnobody 4096 Nov 26 15:19 test
41 drwxr-xr-x. 2 nfsnobody nfsnobody 4096 Nov 28 12:20 zhurui
42 [root@NFS-server data]# mkdir zhurui1
43 [root@NFS-server data]# ll
44 total 12
45 -rw-r--r--. 1 nfsnobody nfsnobody    0 Nov 28 12:20 fs.sf
46 drwxr-xr-x. 2 nfsnobody nfsnobody 4096 Nov 26 15:19 test
47 drwxr-xr-x. 2 nfsnobody nfsnobody 4096 Nov 28 12:20 zhurui
48 drwxr-xr-x. 2 root      root      4096 Nov 28 12:21 zhurui1
49 客户端:
50 [root@Web-lamp01 ~]# cd /mnt/
51 [root@Web-lamp01 mnt]# ll
52 total 4
53 drwxr-xr-x. 2 nobody nobody 4096 Nov 26 15:19 test
54 [root@Web-lamp01 mnt]# touch fs.sf
55 [root@Web-lamp01 mnt]# ll
56 total 4
57 -rw-r--r--. 1 nobody nobody    0 Nov 28 12:20 fs.sf
58 drwxr-xr-x. 2 nobody nobody 4096 Nov 26 15:19 test
59 [root@Web-lamp01 mnt]# mkdir zhurui
60 [root@Web-lamp01 mnt]# ls -ld zhurui/
61 drwxr-xr-x. 2 nobody nobody 4096 Nov 28 12:20 zhurui/
62 [root@Web-lamp01 mnt]# ll
63 total 12
64 -rw-r--r--. 1 nobody nobody    0 Nov 28 12:20 fs.sf
65 drwxr-xr-x. 2 nobody nobody 4096 Nov 26 15:19 test
66 drwxr-xr-x. 2 nobody nobody 4096 Nov 28 12:20 zhurui
67 drwxr-xr-x. 2 nobody nobody 4096 Nov 28 12:21 zhurui1
68 7.开机自启动
69 ?[root@Web-lamp01 mnt]# vim /etc/rc.local 
70 ?#start  up rpcbind services by zhurui 20160226
71 
72 /etc/init.d/rpcbind start
73 
74 /bin/mount -t nfs 192.168.1.14:/data /mnt

Web-lnmp02客户端部署跟Web-lamp01部署步骤相同,这里就不多加说明

14  1 1.安装软件
15  2 [root@Web-lnmp02 ~]# yum -y install nfs-utils rpcbind   
16  3 Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, security
17  4 Setting up Install Process
18  5 Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
19  6  * base: mirrors.sina.cn
20  7  * extras: mirrors.opencas.cn
21  8  * updates: centos.ustc.edu.cn
22  9 base                                             | 3.7 kB     00:00     
23 10 extras                                           | 3.4 kB     00:00     
24 11 extras/primary_db                                |  34 kB     00:00     
25 12 updates                                          | 3.4 kB     00:00 
26 13 2.启动rpcbind
27 14 [root@Web-lnmp02 ~]# /etc/init.d/rpcbind start
28 15 Starting rpcbind:                                          [  OK  ]
29 16 [root@Web-lnmp02 ~]# 
30 17 3.配置开机自启动
31 18 [root@Web-lnmp02 ~]# chkconfig --level 35 rpcbind on
32 19 [root@Web-lnmp02 ~]# chkconfig --list rpcbind
33 20 rpcbind         0:off   1:off   2:on    3:on    4:on    5:on    6:off
34 21 [root@Web-lnmp02 ~]# 
35 22 4.测试服务端共享
36 23 [root@Web-lnmp02 ~]# showmount -e 192.168.1.14
37 24 Export list for 192.168.1.14:
38 25 /data 192.168.1.0/24
39 26 5.挂载
40 27 [root@Web-lnmp02 ~]# mount -t nfs 192.168.1.14:/data /mnt
41 28 [root@Web-lnmp02 ~]# df -h
42 29 Filesystem          Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
43 30 /dev/sda3           7.1G  1.5G  5.3G  22% /
44 31 tmpfs               279M     0  279M   0% /dev/shm
45 32 /dev/sda1           190M   36M  145M  20% /boot
46 33 192.168.1.14:/data  7.1G  1.5G  5.3G  22% /mnt
47 34 6.测试读,写
48 35 服务器端:
49 36 [root@NFS-server test]# cd /data/
50 37 [root@NFS-server data]# ll
51 38 total 8
52 39 -rw-r--r--. 1 nfsnobody nfsnobody    0 Nov 28 12:20 fs.sf
53 40 drwxr-xr-x. 2 nfsnobody nfsnobody 4096 Nov 26 15:19 test
54 41 drwxr-xr-x. 2 nfsnobody nfsnobody 4096 Nov 28 12:20 zhurui
55 42 [root@NFS-server data]# mkdir zhurui1
56 43 [root@NFS-server data]# ll
57 44 total 12
58 45 -rw-r--r--. 1 nfsnobody nfsnobody    0 Nov 28 12:20 fs.sf
59 46 drwxr-xr-x. 2 nfsnobody nfsnobody 4096 Nov 26 15:19 test
60 47 drwxr-xr-x. 2 nfsnobody nfsnobody 4096 Nov 28 12:20 zhurui
61 48 drwxr-xr-x. 2 root      root      4096 Nov 28 12:21 zhurui1
62 49 客户端:
63 50 [root@Web-lnmp02 ~]# cd /mnt/
64 51 [root@Web-lnmp02 mnt]# ll
65 52 total 4
66 53 drwxr-xr-x. 2 nobody nobody 4096 Nov 26 15:19 test
67 54 [root@Web-lnmp02 mnt]# touch fs.sf
68 55 [root@Web-lnmp02 mnt]# ll
69 56 total 4
70 57 -rw-r--r--. 1 nobody nobody    0 Nov 28 12:20 fs.sf
71 58 drwxr-xr-x. 2 nobody nobody 4096 Nov 26 15:19 test
72 59 [root@Web-lnmp02 mnt]# mkdir zhurui
73 60 [root@Web-lnmp02 mnt]# ls -ld zhurui/
74 61 drwxr-xr-x. 2 nobody nobody 4096 Nov 28 12:20 zhurui/
75 62 [root@Web-lnmp02 mnt]# ll
76 63 total 12
77 64 -rw-r--r--. 1 nobody nobody    0 Nov 28 12:20 fs.sf
78 65 drwxr-xr-x. 2 nobody nobody 4096 Nov 26 15:19 test
79 66 drwxr-xr-x. 2 nobody nobody 4096 Nov 28 12:20 zhurui
80 67 drwxr-xr-x. 2 nobody nobody 4096 Nov 28 12:21 zhurui1
81 68 7.开机自启动
82 69 ?[root@Web-lnmp02 mnt]# vim /etc/rc.local 
83 70 ?#start  up rpcbind services by zhurui 20160226
84 71 
85 72 /etc/init.d/rpcbind start
86 73 
87 74 /bin/mount -t nfs 192.168.1.14:/data /mnt

10.6 mount挂载性能优化参数选项

(1)禁止更新目录及文件时间戳挂载

1 mount -t nfs -o noatime,nodiratime 192.168.1.14:/data

(2)安全加优化的挂载方式

1 mount -t nfs -o nosuid,noexec,nodev,noatime,nodiratime,intr,rsize=131072,wsize=131072 192.168.1.14:/data /mnt

(3)默认的挂载方式

1 mount -t nfs 192.168.1.14:/data /mnt

10.7 NFS内核优化

对应的具体内核优化命令:

1 cat >>/etc/sysctl.conf<<EOF
2 net.core.wmem_default = 8388608
3 net.core.rmem_default = 8388608
4 net.core.rmem_max = 16777216
5 net.core.wmem_max = 16777216
6 EOF
执行sysctl -p生效
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